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Civil Litigation And Dispute Resolution In Turkey

Civil Litigation And Dispute Resolution In Turkey



Sayfa Sayısı
:  
526
Kitap Ölçüleri
:  
16*24
Basım Yılı
:  
2016
ISBN NO
:  
978-975-537-236-5

120,00 TL











CONTENTS


PREFACE ................................................................................................................. 3


CONTENTS .............................................................................................................. 5


SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY ............................................................................ 19


LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ................................................................................ 27


INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................. 29


A. GENERAL INFORMATION ABOUT REPUBLIC OF TURKEY AND


JUDICIAL STRUCTURE THEREOF...................................................29


B. CIVIL DISPUTE RESOLUTION METHODS IN TURKEY...................33


C. PROCEDURES FOR ENFORCEMENT WITHOUT A JUDGMENT


ACCORDING TO THE CODE OF COMPULSORY ENFORCEMENT


AND BANKRUPTCY .........................................................................35


CHAPTER ONE: CIVIL LITIGATION.............................................................. 41


A. GENERAL INFORMATION AND PRINCIPLES APPLIED .................41


I. Sources of Turkish Civil Procedure............................................................41


II. Courts .........................................................................................................44


1. The Court of Cassation and other High Courts...................................44


2. The Circuit Courts of Appeals............................................................46


3. Courts of First Instance.......................................................................47


III. Legal Professions........................................................................................50


1. Judge...................................................................................................50


a. General Information .......................................................................50


b. Civil and Disciplinary Liability of Judges......................................51


c. Disqualification and Recusal of Judges..........................................53


2. Lawyer (Attorney) ..............................................................................58


3. Civil Servants (Non-Judge Staff) Employed in Administrative


Offices of Courts .........................................................................................60


IV. Party Proceedings, Time Requirements and Restitution.............................61


1. Procedural Party Proceedings.............................................................61


2. Time Requirements and Computation Thereof...................................62


3. Yearly Judicial Recess........................................................................63


6 CONTENTS


4. Restitution (of a Time Requirement) ..................................................65


5. Judicial Service...................................................................................66


V. Principles Applied in Turkish Civil Procedure...........................................68


1. General Information............................................................................68


2. Disposition Principle ..........................................................................69


3. Principles of Party Presentation and Being Bound by the Scope of


Demand .......................................................................................................69


4. Consolidation Principle.......................................................................70


5. Governance and Administration of Procedure by the Judge...............71


6. Duty of the Judge to Clarify Action....................................................71


7. Right to a Fair Trial and Right be Duly Heard ...................................72


8. Principle of Public Hearings...............................................................73


9. Obligation of Parties and Their Attorneys to Act Honestly and


to Tell the Truth...........................................................................................74


10. Principle of Judicial (Procedural) Economy...................................75


11. Application of Law and Evaluation of Evidence............................76


12. Oral Procedure – Written Procedure and Principle of


Immediacy...................................................................................................77


13. Turkish as the Sole Language of Procedure and Proceedings........79


B. SUBJECT-MATTER JURISDICTION AND VENUE............................79


I. General Information ...................................................................................79


II. Subject-Matter Jurisdiction.........................................................................80


III. Venue .........................................................................................................82


1. Principle Venue Rule ..........................................................................82


2. Special Non-Definitive Venue Rules..................................................84


3. Definitive Venue Rules.......................................................................85


4. Venue Agreements..............................................................................86


5. Lack of Venue and Consequences Thereof.........................................88


IV. Proceedings to be Carried out upon Dismissal of Action on


Grounds of Lack of Subject-Matter Jurisdiction or Venue.........................88


C. PARTIES............................................................................................89


I. General Information ...................................................................................89


II. Capacity to be a Party.................................................................................91


CONTENTS 7


III. Capacity to Conduct Civil Proceedings and Legal


Representation ............................................................................................92


IV. Capacity to Litigate ....................................................................................94


V. Real Party in Interest ..................................................................................95


VI. Substitution of Parties.................................................................................96


VII. Party Representation (Attorneys) ...............................................................98


1. General Information............................................................................98


2. Power of Attorney and Scope Thereof................................................98


3. Actions, Resignation and Dismissal of Attorney ..............................101


VIII. Joinder of Parties......................................................................................102


1. General Information and Terminology .............................................102


2. Permissive Joinder of Parties............................................................102


3. Necessary Joinder of Parties.............................................................103


IX. Third Party Intervention through Filing Action........................................104


X. Supportive Third Party Intervention and Third Party


Notification...............................................................................................105


D. ACTION, PROCEDURAL REQUIREMENTS, COMMENCEMENT OF


ACTIONPARTIES ............................................................................107


I. Action in General .....................................................................................107


1. Types of Actions and Proceedings of Non-Contentious


Jurisdiction ................................................................................................107


2. Action for Performance ....................................................................109


3. Declaratory Action............................................................................109


4. Constructive Action ..........................................................................110


5. Indefinite Debt Action ......................................................................111


6. Action with Partial Claim .................................................................112


7. Other Types of Actions in Code of Civil Procedure .........................113


II. Procedural Requirements..........................................................................115


III. Complaint Pleading and Commencement of Action ................................116


1. In General .........................................................................................116


2. Complaint .........................................................................................117


3. Security.............................................................................................118


4. Legal Consequences of Commencement of Action ..........................120


8 CONTENTS


a. With Regard to Substantive Law..................................................120


b. With Regard to Procedural Law ...................................................121


IV. Answer Pleading and Defenses ................................................................122


1. Answer Pleading...............................................................................122


2. Substantive Law Defenses................................................................124


3. Procedural Law Defenses .................................................................125


V. Secondary Pleadings and Prohibition of Expansion and Change of Claim


and Defense ..............................................................................................127


E. PRE-TRIAL EXAMINATION, TRIAL AND ORAL


ARGUMENTS..................................................................................128


I. Pre-Trial Examination ..............................................................................128


1. Scope of Pre-Trial Examination Stage..............................................128


2. Pre-Trial Examination Hearing.........................................................129


3. Conclusion and Significance of Pre-Trial Examination....................130


II. Trial Stage ................................................................................................132


1. General Information..........................................................................132


2. Hearings and Consequences of Failing to Attend Thereto................133


3. Court Record.....................................................................................135


4. Preliminary and Prejudicial Questions..............................................137


5. Consolidation and Severance of Actions..........................................139


6. Amendment Procedure .....................................................................140


7. Hearing Parties and Questioning of Parties ......................................142


III. Conclusion of Trial and Oral Arguments Stage........................................145


F. COURT DECISIONS, JUDGMENT AND PARTY


PROCEEDINGS THAT TERMINATE ACTION ................................146


I. General Information and Terminology.....................................................146


II. Judgment ..................................................................................................147


1. General Information and Rendition of Judgment .............................147


2. Correction and Clarification of Judgment.........................................150


3. Res Judicata in Turkish Civil Procedure...........................................151


III. Party Proceedings that Terminate Action .................................................154


1. Waiver and Acknowledgement of Claim..........................................154


2. Settlement .........................................................................................155


CONTENTS 9


G. SIMPLIFIED PROCEDURE ..............................................................156


I. Actions and Proceedings to which Simplified Procedure is


Applied .....................................................................................................156


II. Commencement of Action and Procedure to be Followed .......................157


H. JUDICIAL COSTS AND JUDICIAL AID...........................................159


I. General Information and Scope of Judicial Costs.....................................159


II. Attorney Fee .............................................................................................163


III. Allocation of Judicial Costs......................................................................164


IV. Judicial Aid...............................................................................................167


I. PROVISIONAL LEGAL RELIEF ......................................................170


I. General Information and Types of Provisional Legal Reliefs ..................170


II. Provisional Remedy..................................................................................171


1. Definition, Scope and Examination ..................................................171


2. Execution of Provisional Remedy Decision and Complementary


Proceedings ...............................................................................................173


3. Objection Against the Provisional Remedy Decision And Appellate


Remedies...................................................................................................174


4. Compensation in Provisional Remedy..............................................175


III. Preliminary Discovery of Evidence..........................................................176


J. APPELLATE REMEDIES .................................................................179


I. General Information and Terminology.....................................................179


II. Appellate Remedies According to Code of Civil Procedure (to be


Implemented on 20.07.2016)....................................................................182


1. Intermediate Appeal..........................................................................182


a. Definition and Application...........................................................182


b. Procedure to be Followed.............................................................185


2. Appeal...............................................................................................188


a. General Information, Application, and Procedure to be


Followed ...............................................................................................188


b. Conclusion of Appellate Review..................................................191


c. Procedure upon Reversal..............................................................192


d. Appeal for the Benefit of the Statute ............................................194


10 CONTENTS


III. Appellate Remedies in Effect (until 20.07.2016) .....................................195


1. Appeal...............................................................................................195


2. Revision ............................................................................................198


IV. Extra-Ordinary Appellate Remedy: Renewal of Proceedings ..................200


1. Definition and Scope ........................................................................200


2. Time Limit and Application .............................................................202


3. Examination and Decision to be Rendered .......................................203


CHAPTER TWO: THE LAW OF EVIDENCE ................................................ 205


A. GENERAL INFORMATION AND ADMISSION OF FACTS..............205


B. RIGHT TO PROVE AND BURDEN OF PROOF ................................207


C. OFFERING AND PRESENTING EVIDENCE....................................208


D. EXAMINATION AND EVALUATION OF EVIDENCE.....................210


E. EVIDENCE AGREEMENTS .............................................................211


F. EVIDENCE ......................................................................................212


I. General Information, Types of Evidence and


Res Judicata as Evidence..........................................................................212


II. Documents and Deeds..............................................................................213


1. Documents in General and Presentation Thereof..............................213


2. Commercial Books and Their Evidentiary Value .............................216


3. Deeds................................................................................................217


4. Denial of Writing or Signature .........................................................219


5. Rules of Documentary Proof and Their Exceptions .........................221


III. Oath ..........................................................................................................225


1. General Information..........................................................................225


2. Scope of Oath ...................................................................................226


3. Execution and Legal Consequences of Oath.....................................227


IV. Witness.....................................................................................................229


1. General Information and Scope ........................................................229


2. Summonses and Examination of Witnesses......................................230


3. Right to Refuse Testimony ...............................................................233


V. Expert Examination ..................................................................................235


1. General Information and Appointment.............................................235


CONTENTS 11


2. Scope of Expert Duty........................................................................237


3. The Expert Report.............................................................................240


4. Civil Liability of the Expert..............................................................241


VI. Inspection by Judge ..................................................................................242


VII. Specialist Opinion ....................................................................................243


CHAPTER THREE: (DOMESTIC) ARBITRATION...................................... 245


A. GENERAL INFORMATION AND PROVISIONS REGARDING


ARBITRATION................................................................................245


B. SCOPE OF THE ARBITRATION PROVISIONS IN THE CODE OF


CIVIL PROCEDURE ........................................................................247


C. ARBITRATION AGREEMENT.........................................................248


D. POWERS OF ARBITRATOR AND ARBITRAL TRIBUNAL .............250


E. SELECTION OF THE ARBITRATORS


AND THEIR RECUSAL....................................................................251


F. THE ARBITRATION PROCEDURE .................................................254


I. Determination of Procedure and Commencement of


Proceedings ..............................................................................................254


II. Holding Hearings and Duration of Arbitration.........................................256


III. Provisions Regarding Proof......................................................................257


G. ARBITRATION AWARD AND TERMINATION OF PROCEEDINGS257


H. ARBITRATORS’ FEES AND ARBITRATION COSTS ......................260


I. APPELLATE REMEDIES AGAINST


ARBITRATION AWARDS ...............................................................261


J. NOTABLE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN DOMESTIC ARBITRATION


RULES AND INTERNATIONAL ARBITRATION RULES ................264


I. Provisional Legal Relief...........................................................................264


II. Proper Court .............................................................................................265


III. Time Requirements, Duration of Arbitration and Procedure


to be Applied ...........................................................................................266


12 CONTENTS


IV. Arbitration Awards, Appellate Remedies and Enforcement


of Awards.................................................................................................268


CHAPTER FOUR: ALTERNATIVE CIVIL DISPUTE RESOLUTION....... 271


A. GENERAL INFORMATION AND ACDR METHODS IMPLEMENTED


IN TURKEY.....................................................................................271


B. CONCILIATION POWER OF ATTORNEYS IN


CIVIL DISPUTES.............................................................................273


C. MEDIATION IN CIVIL DISPUTES (ACCORDING TO THE LAW ON


MEDIATION IN CIVIL DISPUTES)..................................................275


I. General Information and Scope ................................................................275


II. Mediator ...................................................................................................277


III. Mediation Process ....................................................................................281


IV. Termination of Mediation Process and Agreement Document.................283


APPENDIX I: CODE OF CIVIL PROCEDURE.............................................. 287


PART ONE...................................................................................................287


General Provisions.........................................................................................287


CHAPTER ONE.....................................................................................................287


Subject-Matter Jurisdiction, Venue and Designation of Proper Court ...................287


SECTION ONE.........................................................................................287


Subject-Matter Jurisdiction .......................................................................287


SECTION TWO........................................................................................289


Venue ........................................................................................................289


SECTION THREE ....................................................................................293


Proceedings to be Carried out upon Dismissal on Grounds of Lack of


Subject-Matter Jurisdiction or Venue and Designation of Proper Court...293


CHAPTER TWO....................................................................................................295


Principles Governing Procedure .............................................................................295


CHAPTER THREE................................................................................................297


Disqualification, Recusal and Civil Liability of Judge ...........................................297


SECTION ONE.........................................................................................297


Disqualification and Recusal of Judge from Trying the Action ................297


CONTENTS 13


SECTION TWO........................................................................................304


Civil Liability of Judge..............................................................................304


CHAPTER FOUR ..................................................................................................306


Parties and Third Party Interveners in Action ........................................................306


SECTION ONE.........................................................................................306


Capacity of Parties.....................................................................................306


SECTION TWO........................................................................................308


Joinder of Parties.......................................................................................308


SECTION THREE ....................................................................................309


Third Party Notification and Intervention in Action .................................309


SECTION FOUR ......................................................................................312


Party Representation in Litigation.............................................................312


SECTION FIVE ........................................................................................316


Security......................................................................................................316


CHAPTER SIX ......................................................................................................318


Time Requirements, Restitution and Judicial Recess.............................................318


SECTION ONE.........................................................................................318


Time Requirements ...................................................................................318


SECTION TWO........................................................................................319


Restitution .................................................................................................319


SECTION THREE ....................................................................................321


Judicial Recess ..........................................................................................321


PART TWO..................................................................................................323


Types of Actions, Procedural Requirements and


Preliminary Objections.......................................................................323


CHAPTER ONE.....................................................................................................323


Types of Actions.....................................................................................................323


CHAPTER TWO....................................................................................................326


Procedural Requirements and Preliminary Objections...........................................326


SECTION ONE.........................................................................................326


Procedural Requirements...........................................................................326


SECTION TWO........................................................................................327


Preliminary Objections..............................................................................327


14 CONTENTS


PART THREE ..............................................................................................328


Written Procedure..........................................................................................328


CHAPTER ONE.....................................................................................................328


Commencement of Action......................................................................................328


CHAPTER TWO....................................................................................................331


Answer ..................................................................................................................331


CHAPTER THREE................................................................................................334


Response to Answer and Second Answer Pleadings..............................................334


CHAPTER FOUR ..................................................................................................334


Pre-Trial Examination ............................................................................................334


CHAPTER FIVE....................................................................................................337


Trial and Special Matters in the Course of Trial.....................................................337


SECTION ONE.........................................................................................337


Trial...........................................................................................................337


SECTION TWO........................................................................................338


Hearing ......................................................................................................338


SECTION THREE ....................................................................................344


Preliminary Question and Prejudicial Question.........................................344


SECTION FOUR ......................................................................................345


Joinder and Severance of Actions .............................................................345


SECTION FIVE ........................................................................................346


Questioning of Parties ...............................................................................346


SECTION SIX...........................................................................................349


Amendment and Correction of Factual Errors...........................................349


CHAPTER SIX ......................................................................................................351


Conclusion of Trial and Oral Arguments ...............................................................351


PART FOUR ................................................................................................352


Proof and Evidence........................................................................................352


CHAPTER ONE.....................................................................................................352


General Provisions..................................................................................................352


CHAPTER TWO....................................................................................................355


CONTENTS 15


Document and Deed ...............................................................................................355


CHAPTER THREE................................................................................................365


Oath ..................................................................................................................365


CHAPTER FOUR ..................................................................................................369


Witness ..................................................................................................................369


CHAPTER FIVE....................................................................................................377


Expert Examination ................................................................................................377


CHAPTER SIX ......................................................................................................384


Inspection by Judge ................................................................................................384


CHAPTER SEVEN................................................................................................386


Specialist Opinion ..................................................................................................386


PART FIVE ..................................................................................................387


Judgment and Party Proceedings that Terminate the Action...............................387


CHAPTER ONE.....................................................................................................387


Judgment ................................................................................................................387


CHAPTER TWO....................................................................................................391


Correction and Clarification of Judgment ..............................................................391


CHAPTER THREE................................................................................................392


Party Proceedings that Terminate the Action .........................................................392


PART SIX ....................................................................................................394


Simplified Procedure .....................................................................................394


PART SEVEN ..............................................................................................397


Judicial Costs and Judicial Aid .......................................................................397


CHAPTER ONE.....................................................................................................397


Judicial Costs..........................................................................................................397


CHAPTER TWO....................................................................................................402


Judicial Aid.............................................................................................................402


PART EIGHT ...............................................................................................405


16 CONTENTS


Appellate Remedies.......................................................................................405


CHAPTER ONE.....................................................................................................405


Intermediate Appeal ...............................................................................................405


CHAPTER TWO....................................................................................................414


Appeal ..................................................................................................................414


CHAPTER THREE................................................................................................421


Renewal of Proceedings .........................................................................................421


PART NINE .................................................................................................425


Non-Contentious Jurisdiction..........................................................................425


PART TEN ...................................................................................................432


Provisional Legal Relief.................................................................................432


CHAPTER ONE.....................................................................................................432


Provisional Remedy................................................................................................432


Preliminary Discovery of Evidence and Other Types of Provisional Reliefs.........438


PART ELEVEN ............................................................................................440


Arbitration ....................................................................................................440


PART TWELVE ...........................................................................................458


Final Provisions.............................................................................................458


APPENDIX II: PROVISIONS OF THE PREVIOUS CODE OF CIVIL


PROCEDURE (1927-CoCP) REGARDING APPELLATE PROCEDURE


THAT ARE IN EFFECT UNTIL 20.07.2016..................................................... 463


APPENDIX III: CODE OF INTERNATIONAL ARBITRATION ................. 473


CHAPTER ONE ...........................................................................................473


General Provisions.........................................................................................473


CHAPTER TWO...........................................................................................475


Arbitration Agreement ...................................................................................475


CHAPTER THREE .......................................................................................477


Selection of Arbitrator or Arbitral Tribunal, Recusal, Liability, Termination of Duty


and Powers Thereof ...........................................................................477


CONTENTS 17


CHAPTER FOUR .........................................................................................481


Procedure in Arbitration.................................................................................481


CHAPTER FIVE...........................................................................................490


Appellate Remedy Against Arbitration Awards................................................490


CHAPTER SIX .............................................................................................493


Arbitration Costs ...........................................................................................493


CHAPTER SEVEN .......................................................................................495


Final Provisions.............................................................................................495


APPENDIX IV: LAW ON MEDIATION IN CIVIL DISPUTES .................... 497


CHAPTER ONE ...........................................................................................497


Purpose, Scope and Definitions.......................................................................497


CHAPTER TWO...........................................................................................498


General Principles Regarding Mediation..........................................................498


CHAPTER THREE .......................................................................................500


Rights and Obligations of Mediators ...............................................................500


CHAPTER FOUR .........................................................................................502


Mediation Process .........................................................................................502


CHAPTER FIVE...........................................................................................505


Registry of Mediators.....................................................................................505


CHAPTER SIX .............................................................................................507


Mediation Training and Training Institutions ...................................................507


CHAPTER SEVEN .......................................................................................509


Organization and Duties.................................................................................509


CHAPTER EIGHT ........................................................................................513


Punitive Provisions........................................................................................513


CHAPTER NINE ..........................................................................................513


Final and Transitional Provisions....................................................................513


18 CONTENTS


APPENDIX V: GLOSSARY (TURKISH – ENGLISH) ................................... 516


PUBLICATIONS BY MUSTAFA GÖKSU ....................................................... 525


PUBLICATIONS LIST OF THE RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF BANKING


 

AND COMMERCIAL LAW 2015 ...................................................................... 527